About Bhaktapur Durbar Square
Bhaktapur Durbar Square also known as Bhaktapur Palace or royal palace is situated in the current town of Bhaktapur also known as Khwopa. It lies 13km east of Kathmandu valley. Its total area is 6.25 square. Bhaktapur Durbar Square was enlisted in UNESCO world heritage site in 1979 AD. The Bhaktapur durbar square is located in province no 3, in the Bagmati region.” Khwopa ” was derived from the word “Khwopring” and Bhaktapur was derived from the word “Bhaktagram”.The Bhaktapur durbar square was built by kings. The Durbar square consists of four distinct squares:(Durbar square, Raumadhi square, Dattatreya square, and pottery square) which collectively is called Durbar square.
Bhaktapur durbar square is regarded as the diggings of ancient Nepali culture, custom, traditional beliefs, alluring arts, and excellent craftsmanship. Each historical monument represents the medieval cultural custom and religion of Nepal. The indigenous news people, who have retained their original culture are among the most exciting subjects to be observed in Bhaktapur. Including their arts, festivals, agriculture, and Newari food and drink “Juju Dhau”.
In Bhaktapur, we can see some of the finest medieval arts of Nepal of particular interest: the golden gate, fifty-five windows, and the beautiful state of king Bhupatindra Malla mounted on a giant stone pillar. The Malla dynasty is one of the main attractions in the Bhaktapur durbar square which also contains many unique temples of historical significance. Bhaktapur durbar square for its traditional clay pottery, clay mask, and wooden crafts. Showcasing architecture that dates back to the Malla period, the square is the most charming, with wide-open spaces that are off-limits to vehicular traffic. The king of yogurts” lends Bhaktapur uniqueness. Bhaktapur Durbar square consists of the “Palace of fifty-five windows (“Nge Nyyapa Jhya Laaykoo) was built during the reign of king yaksha Malla and was re-modeled by king Bhupatindra Malla who ruled from 1696 to 722 AD in the 17th century.
The golden gate was erected by King Ranjit Malla as the entrance to the main courtyard of the fifty-five-window palace. Another center of attraction is the Vatsala temple. In front of the palace and beside the king’s statue and next to Taleju Bell there is the Vatsala Devi temple. The Shikhara-style temple is constructed with sandstone which is built in three states similar to the Krishna mandir of Patan. The temple is dedicated to Vatsala Devi, a form of the goddess Durga. The temple was built by king Jitamitra Malla. There is a water source called Dhunge Dhara. The statue of Bhupatindra Malla can be seen on a column facing the palace. The Shikhara temple is dedicated to the tantric Goddess Siddhi Laxmi and was built in the 17th century. There is a belief in having various animals like rhinos, horses, camels, and some mythical creatures that guard the temples.
Features of Bhaktapur Durbar Square
Bhaktapur Durbar square is built in the Nepalese pagoda style of architecture. The durbar square is carved with wooden rafters, cubic sculpture, spectacular architecture, vivid showcases, and the skills of the Newari artist and craftsmanship. The durbar square has fifty-five windows palace(“phachpanna jhyale Durbar”) which has its own history was constructed by king Jitamitra Malla and it was the home of royal kings and queens. It is now a National Gallery. This temple is also dedicated to the goddess Taleju Bhawani and altered to both the Taleju Bhawani and Kumari. The entrance of the temple is restricted and the living goddess cannot be photographed.
Nyatapola is a Newari language that means “five storey”.So, Nyatapola is also called a five storey temple. It is symbolic of five basic elements. The Nyatapola is derived from the word Nyata means “Talla ” and the pole means “chana”(roof) . This temple is the highest and biggest pagoda in Nepal. The Nyatapola Temple is bossed with many characteristic stones, metal, wood carvings, and excellent Newari craftsmanship. It is built with architectural perfection and artistic beauty. The land where the Nyatapola stands is being searched by a farmer during his farming where he notices the land(mud) of the land is very strong. It was built by King Bhupatindra Malla in 1759 AD. It has a total of 33 steps. It stands 30m high from the land. It was built in 6 months. Taj Mahal and The Nyatapola temple were built at the same time. Goddess Siddhi Laxmi manifestation of goddess Parvati. She has to take this form to calm the fearless Bhairab(a form of lord shiva). Siddhi Laxmi is regarded as the mother of numerals of the Newars of Bhaktapur. She held the topmost position of Tantric divinity. The Karmacharya priest is only allowed to enter the temple. Siddhi Laxmi, Hindu god has Nine heads and Eighteen Arms and stands with her feet on the shoulder of Bhairab . The temple was built by many craftsmen outside and inside the valley. It is believed that originally 529 bells were made but 528 were used on temples. It is believed by the local Newari people that when the bells ring the rain definitely comes. It is believed that the temple was built with a total of 1358654 bricks. The brick wall has survived at least four earthquakes. During the earthquake of 2072, the temple’s 5th storey was destroyed and later it was constructed by Bhaktapur municipality. The temple is of great cultural importance to the people of Bhaktapur as numerous traditions of the city are based on the monument.
Temples In Bhaktapur Durbar Square
Elephant stone Temples:
There is a Shiva Parvati temple located just 10m before the entrance way. Before the entrance on the left side is a water fountain. We can see the exciting stone carving, sculpture, and excellent craftsmanship. One of these shows a pair of swivel elephants, in the missionary position:Kisi(elephants) Kamasutra.
Ugrachandi and ugrabhairab
Near the Bhaktapur durbar square main gate at the west end, everyone can praise a pair of the multi-armed statue of the fierce god Ugra Bhairava(a fearless manifestation of lord shiva) and fellow Ugrachandi(a form of furious goddess Parvati). The state was built in 1701 AD. It is believed that the sculpture has his own hands cut off afterward to prevent duplicating his masterpiece. Ugrachandi has eighteen arms that are holding a weapon and are in the position of casually killing a demon. Bhairab also has 12 arms and both gods and goddesses are garlanded with human heads.
This temple is on the right of the gate of Bhaktapur durbar square is Rameshwar, which is in front of Gopi Nath temple. The temple is in Gum Baja style. It is a open sanctum with four pillars. This temple is dedicated to Lord shiva. The lord Rameshwar means that the lord shiva is the lord of Rama. Rama means Lord Ram. ( a form of Lord Vishnu). Since Lord Ram has to worship Lord Shiva to redeem the misdeed of killing Ravan( King of Lanka) who was a Brahmin. It is built with bricks and marvalesing design.
Badrinath Temple is on the west side of the Gopi Nath temple which is locally known as Badri Narayan Temple. This temple is dedicated to Lord Vishnu and lord shiva. This temple is carved with bricks, spectacular architecture, and cubic sculpture.
Gopinath Temple is built with two roofs which are built in pagoda style. It is attached to the Rameshwar Temple. It is the house of three divinities Balaram, Subhadra, and Krishna. We common people cannot see the divinity as the door remains closed. The temple is also known as Jagannath, which is a form of Lord Vishnu. Dwarka is also known as Krishna Temple. The Divinities are Satyabhama, Krishna, and Radha. This divinity state is carved in the stone. On the month of Mangsir (November/December. The divinities are placed in a buggy and taken around the city.
The adobe madein a shikara-style temple in Kedarnath Temple in Kedarnath. It is a lord Shiva temple. It is one of the holiest temples of Bhaktapur. It is Paved with bricks, Unique architecture. This temple was built by Bhupatindra Malla.
Hanuman State is at the entrance of the National Art Gallery. Hanuman is also considered the monkey god. Hanuman also appears in tantric form as the four-armed hanuman. Hanuman is worshipped for his Strenght, power, and devotion towards Lord Ram. Hanuman is Bramachari. It is made with sand and bricks.
It is also called “Ta”. Taduchhen Bahal is known as Chaturvarna Mahavihar. It is a Buddhist temple. It was built by King Raya Malla. It was built in 1429 AD. It is located on the eastern side of the durbar square. It is engraved with bricks, and wood, Some states of god and goddess are made on the front side of the temple. We can see a small stupa right in front of the main door. It can also be called a kumari house.